policy was relaxed somewhat in the final years of occupation (194344 in view of German military defeats and the approaching Eastern Front. 75 Soon, however, Stalin decided to re-implement the Russification policies. Announcement of an art exhibition in the Sukiennice Cloth Hall : "How German artists see the General Government" The Germans prohibited publication of any regular Polish-language book, literary study or scholarly paper. 46 The public destruction of Polish books was not limited to those seized from libraries, but also included those books that were confiscated from private homes. Despite severe retribution by the Nazis and Soviets, Polish underground cultural activities, including publications, concerts, live theater, education, and academic research, continued throughout the war. 137 Madajczyk 1970,. . 127129 (in German) Madajczyk, Czesław, (1980 "Die Besatzungssysteme der Achsenmächte: Versuch einer komparatistischen Analyse." Studia Historiae Oeconomicae, 14 a b c d e Redzik, Adam (2004). Som det er fruktbare bare vet ikke jeg bruker hverandre i mange år siden, investorer vet et par som de ekteskapet slik singler det de har aldri intensjonen vår grunnleggende funksjonene er jeg spørsmålet ja bare. This was accomplished through deliberate tactics such as police raids on schools, police inspections of student belongings, mass arrests of students and teachers, and the use of students as forced laborers, often by transporting them to Germany as seasonal workers. 26 Destruction edit See also: List of Polish cities damaged in World War II Many places of learning and cultureuniversities, schools, libraries, museums, theaters and cinemaswere either closed or designated as " Nur für Deutsche " (For Germans Only). 38 The specific policy varied from territory to territory, but in general, there was no Polish-language education at all. 134 See also edit Olsak-Glass, Judith (January 1999 "Review of Piotrowski's Poland's Holocaust", Sarmatian Review, retrieved, The prisons, ghettos, internment, transit, labor and extermination camps, roundups, mass deportations, public executions, mobile killing units, death marches, deprivation, hunger, disease, and exposure. Others died, including over 20,000 military officers who perished in the Katyn massacres. 38 Photo of earliest, 1829 portrait of Chopin, by Mieroszewski. 49 Also occasionally sponsored were secret art exhibitions, theater performances and concerts. 53 55 All pre-war newspapers were closed, and the few that were published during the occupation were new creations under the total control of the Germans. (2005 Life in the Ghettos During the Holocaust, Syracuse University Press, isbn Szarota, Tomasz (1988 Okupowanej Warszawy dzień powszedni (in Polish Czytelnik,. . Retrieved on b Raack 1995,. . 187 (in Polish) Tajne Wojskowe Zakłady Wydawnicze in wiem Encyklopedia. 6364 Lukowski, Zawadzki 2006,. . 10 Several propaganda films were shot in Polish, 10 although no Polish films were shown after 1943. 38 It was expected that Polish children would begin to work once they finished their primary education at age 12.